Job Observation and Behavior Scale: Opportunity for Self-Determination (JOBS:OSD)
|37635||Job Observation and Behavior Scale: OSD Employee Completed||$97.00|
|37635R||JOBS:OSD Record Booklets, Pk/25||$38.00|
|37235||Job Observation and Behavior Scale- System (JOBS- System)||$180.00|
Provides valuable information useful in complying with transitional IEP requirements.
Michael P. Brady, Ph. D., Howard Rosenberg, Ed. D. and Michael Frain, Ph. D.
- Age Range: Students and Adults in entry-level jobs
- Time: 20-30 minutes
JOBS:OSD is designed to assist employers, educators, rehabilitation counselors, and other professionals involved in providing transitional work training and rehabilitation. It provides an understanding of work performance and support needs, from the self-perspective of adult employees and students.
This self-assessment is a critical component of success in long-term employment and community living. Information derived from JOBS:OSD provides employers with a means of making reasonable accommodations for employees, necessary for compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the Rehabilitation Act.
JOBS:OSD links self-determination to critical vocational behaviors, and the support needs of student and adult employees in community employment settings. It allows educators and rehabilitation professionals to understand the perspective of the employee, and establishes a communication bridge between supervisors and workers, which reduces workplace ambiguity to establish person-specific instruction, training and support programs that comply with transitional IEP requirements under IDEA, and with IWRP and ISP requirements under the Rehabilitation Act.
Three JOBS:OSD subscales include 30 items, which represent critical patterns of performance in work-related daily living skills, behavior and job duties. Each item asks the employee to self-assess both Quality of Performance and Type of Support required. Content for each item is identical to the Job Observation and Behavior Scale (JOBS) (Stoelting Catalog No. 37035).
Work-Required Daily Living Activities Subscale assesses:
- Personal Hygiene and Grooming
- Verbal Communication
- Non-Verbal Communication
- Using Money
- Self Identification
- Personal Schedule
- Work Facilities
- Work Schdule
Work-Required Behavior Subscale assesses:
- Stress Tolerance
- Work Interactions
- Social Interactions
- Changes in Routine
Work-Required Job Duties assesses:
- Quality of Work
- Quantity of Work
- Previously-Learned Tasks
- Learning New Tasks
- Multiple Tasks
- Organization of Tasks
- Safety Procedures
- Cleanliness at Work
- Employee Motivation
JOBS:OSD is sensitive to change, and should be re-administered when impending changes in an individual’s job status is expected. There are three methods for interpreting JOBS:OSD results:
- Direct Interpretation — looking for “Red Flags” or patterns of response that might indicate response bias
- Comparison to JOBS — allows for clear analysis of discrepancies between evaluator ratings and the self-evaluation
- Normative Interpretation — comparing the individual’s self-assessment against the norms established during standardization
The JOBS System
Teachers, job coaches, rehabilitation specialists and employment professionals make a wide range of decisions that affect the current and future work status of students and adults with special employment needs. These decisions include choices in curriculum models, instructional strategies, career options, job settings and work experiences.
In the education arena, these decisions culminate in transitional Individual Education Programs (IEP) for every student between the ages of 16 to 21. Students must have the opportunity to participate in the development of their IEPs and transition plans from age 16.
In the vocational training arena, there is a requirement to develop Individual Rehabilitation Plans (IWRP) and Individual Support Plans (ISP) for adults with special employment needs. Accreditation bodies, such as CARF, require that employees have continual input into their plans and programs, in terms of training and support.
The JOBS System (JOBS and JOBS:OSD used together) incorporates both required models of vocational evaluation. The combination of these assessments allows professionals, students and adult employees to establish whether discrepancies or agreements exist, by comparing the various perceptions of the quality of work performance, and the type of support needed to maintain that work quality. The System allows for informed decisions regarding goals and objectives appropriate for IEPs, IWRPs and ISPs, as well as for workplace interventions.
By combining and comparing the results from JOBS (employer rated) and JOBS:OSD (employee rated) these professionals can establish where discrepancies exist between the quality of an individual’s work, and the type of support needed to maintain acceptable quality.
Normative Sample, Reliability and Validity
The normative sample included participants with disabilities, from a broad range of educational, rehabilitation and employment settings. It included both middle and high school students enrolled in special needs transitional programs, as well as adults with special employment needs.
Participants were employed in entry-level positions and job categories, which included landscaping and agriculture (lawn maintenance, gardening); clerical work (filing, duplicating, telephone answering); assembly and light manufacturing; hotel and restaurant service (food preparation, table bussing, housekeeping, pool maintenance); retail (bagging, stocking, customer service); automotive (washing and waxing, automotive detailing); custodial work, and child/geriatric care.
Test/Re-test Reliability studies established the stability of JOBS:OSD ratings by secondary students and adult employees. The content of the JOBS:OSD items is identical to JOBS items. Content validity for JOBS items was established by linking those items to prior research in the areas of work adjustment, employability, and supported employment. Concurrent validity studies indicate a strong correlation with other measures such as the Brigance Diagnostic Employability Inventory.
The complete JOBS:OSD Kit includes the Manual and a package of Record Booklets.
Job Observation and Behavior Scale (JOBS) Research
Bennett, K., Brady, M. P., Scott, J., Dukes, C., & Frain, M. (2010). Effects of covert audio coaching on the job performance of supported employees. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilitie3, 25(3), 173-185.
- A behavioral coaching intervention designed to improve employability skills was implemented with adults in supported employment settings. Employees were evaluated with JOBS prior to the study to summarize their employment skills and support needs.
Bennett, K., Frain, M., Brady, M.P., Rosenberg, H., & Surinak, T. (2009). Differences between employees' and supervisors' evaluations of work performance and support needs. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 44(4), 471-480.
- Shows importance of having supervisors as well as employees identify job performance, as often there are different views
Brady, M.P., Duffy, M.L., Frain, M., & Bucholz, J. (2010). Evaluating work performance and support needs in supported employment training programs: correspondence between teachers' ratings and students' self ratings? Journal of Rehabilitation, 76(3), 24-31.
- Shows that JOBS is useful to identify discrepencies between teacher and student views of performance.
Brady, M.P. & Rosenberg, H. (2002a). Job observation and behavior scale: a supported employment assessment instrument. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 37(4), 427-433.
- Shows that JOBS Scale is sensitive to employment evaluations for those in supported employment positions.
Brady, M. P., & Rosenberg, H. (2002b). Modifying and managing employment practices: An inclusive model for job placement and support. In K. Storey, D. Hunter, & P. Bates (Eds.), The road ahead: Transition to adult life for persons with disabilities (pp. 119-135). St. Augustine, FL: Training Resources Network.
- Chapter that summarizes strategies for supported employment. Concepts such as job-to-person match and occupational colleagueship are discussed.
Brady, M.P., Rosenberg, H., & Frain, M.P. (2008). A self-evaluation instrument for work performance and support needs. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals (31)3, 175-185.
- Summary of how JOBS Scale can help transition students into supported employment and reviews psychometrics of Scale
Bucholz, J. L., Brady, M. P., Duffy, M. L., Scott, J., & Kontosh, L. (2008). Using Literacy-Based Behavioral Interventions and social stories to improve work behavior in employees with developmental disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43(4), 486-501.
- A behavioral intervention designed to improve employability skills. Employees were evaluated with JOBS prior to the study to summarize their employment skills and support needs.
Bucholz, J., & Brady, M. P. (2008). Teaching positive work behaviors with Literacy-Based Behavioral Interventions: An intervention for students and employees with developmental disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 41(2), 50-55.
- A teacher-friendly description of an intervention for teachers and job coaches designed to improve employability. Employees were evaluated with JOBS and JOBS: OSD are described as a pre-assessment strategy to summarize employment skills and support needs.
Richards, S., Brady, M. P., & Taylor, R. (2015). Cognitive and intellectual disabilities: Historical perspectives, current practices, and future directions (2d ed.). New York: Routledge.
- Text that summarizes effective practices for people with cognitive and intellectual disabilities. JOBS and JOBS: OSD are described as assessment systems that highlight performance and support measures.
Hall, K., Brady, M. P., Kearney, K., & Downey, A. (2017). Comparing different delivery modes for Literacy-Based Behavioral Interventions during employment training for college students with developmental disabilities. Manuscript submitted for publication.
- A behavioral teaching intervention designed to increase employability skills was implemented with college students with developmental disabilities. College students were evaluated with JOBS: OSD prior to the study to summarize their employment skills and support needs.